The good performance of a solar panel depends on the orientation and inclination. A bad orientation and a bad inclination can in fact cause strong losses in energy efficiency. A Solar Panel, to capture as much solar energy as possible, it must be exposed directly to the sun's rays perpendicularly. However, it is not always easy, the position of the sun throughout the day is never the same.
How to orient the solar panels
For a better performance it is necessary that the solar panel is oriented and inclined, with respect to the horizontal plane, by a certain number of degrees so that the sun can be as perpendicular as possible to the panel itself. For Italy (upper hemisphere) the south-facing panel will be exposed to sunlight for a maximum number of hours possible in each day.
The best exposure is in the South South / West (shifted slightly further West by 10/20 degrees) with an inclination of the panel between 25 ° and 35 ° because it is perpendicular for longer to sunrays. This orientation allows to maximize the yield of solar panels in the afternoon, when the sun's rays are particularly hot, sacrificing those of the morning when mist and fog can hinder radiation.
The performance of a panel also depends on the outside temperature: it is better to favor exposure in the afternoon where even in winter the days are warmer. Poles, cables, tree branches and more should never shade the photovoltaic panels mono and polycrystalline since the cells assembled in series would stop fulfilling their function. In case i panels are used only in the morning it will be necessary to orient the solar panels towards the East, while for the exploitation of the panels only in the afternoon it will be necessary to move them to the West.
If it is used only during the winter period, the best inclination is that of 60 °. If it is used only during the summer period, the best inclination is that of 30 ° (for example for swimming pools). The installation of solar panels must be done according to rational criteria: i panels they must satisfy, as mentioned, sufficient exposure to sunlight, but we must also keep in mind the aspects related to aesthetics, the space available, the ease of access for maintenance. In fact, in the event of replacements or cleaning, access should not be excessively difficult or, worse, dangerous. To ensure all these factors, it is necessary in any case to rely on the designer's opinion to evaluate the most suitable solution after carrying out an analysis of the usable surfaces.