Organic waste such as food, fruit and vegetable scraps, cut plants, foliage, lawn mowing, weeds, shavings, etc. they are all materials that can be recycled directly in the garden or in the vegetable garden with the practice of compost.
THE Organic waste are precious material that instead of unnecessarily burdening the transport of garbage and landfills, can be advantageously transformed into humus for fertilize the soil in a natural way. This is possible thanks to the composting; before you understand how to make compost let's see what it is.
What is the compost?
The compost is a biological and aerobic degradation process (i.e. occurs in the presence of oxygen) in which organic residues are transformed into compost from bacteria already present naturally.
It is used as natural fertilizer in agriculture.
How to use compost?
It can compost everything that was once living and that microorganisms can "digest".
The selection of materials starts in the kitchen and a special bucket is recommended for Organic waste. Careful harvesting is the first step to take for prepare compost.
here are the waste to compost:
- remains of fruit and vegetables
- remains of uncooked food
- dried flowers
- tea and coffee filters
- remnants of wool, feathers, hair
- grass (dried)
- chopped wood materials
- In small quantities you can also add:
- unprinted paper and cardboard
- excrement of small animals (birds, hens, rabbits, etc.)
What not to add to the compost:
- cooked foods of any kind (meat, fish, vegetables, cheeses, pasta), because during decomposition they release bacteria antagonistic to those of composting.
- Bread and sweets because they are cooked and attract unwanted animals.
- Plastic - rubber - synthetic materials.
- Glass and ceramics, metals.
- Glossy magazines
- Soot, coal ash
- Vacuum cleaner bags
How to prepare a composter is How to make compost
The composter is a container with a lid built outdoors to protect from excessive atmospheric agents (too much rain, too much sun) in which to introduce the Organic waste for prepare compost. It can be placed in a shady spot in your garden directly on the ground. It can be easily made with recycled materials: wooden platforms or boxes, iron wire, metal mesh. The measures of the heap are naturally variable depending on the material used. Approximately one meter in height should not be exceeded at the time of preparation which will then decrease due to its weight and fermentation by about 50%. Whenever the layer of fresh material added reaches a thickness of 10 - 15 cm, it is good to move it with the fork and air it.
Complete turning (mixing of the compound after about 6-12 weeks) is convenient because it brings oxygen to the compacted material and accelerates maturation.
When the compost?
To understand when a compost has reached the right level of maturation is to visually and olfactively assess his physical state. When the starting materials are no longer recognizable inside and the mass has taken on a homogeneous and lumpy appearance, it is ready for use.
If the composting the compost product can be used after 4-6 months and is usually “mature” after 8-12 months. The nutritional value of the compound changes considerably in relation to its degree of ripeness.
After 4-6 months it is a compost not fully mature which contains a large amount of nutrients readily available to plants.
What is compost used for?
It is suitable for fertilizing all fruit trees and shrubs and vegetables with high nutritional needs such as cabbage, tomatoes, leeks, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, corn, cucumbers, courgettes and pumpkins.
After about 8-12 months it is a mature compost and it is a black, soft soil with a smell of woodland earth, very rich in humic acids. It is especially useful for improving the soil structure. It can also be used for the preparation of soil for sowing and for potted plants, for the fertilization of less demanding and more sensitive vegetables such as peas, beans, carrots, onions, salads. Finally, for flowers and ornamental plants in the garden and for the lawn.
One of the most important factors to consider for the correct course of a composting process is the so-called C / N ratio (where C = carbon content of the organic substrate and N = nitrogen content). For a harmonious development of decomposition and subsequent synthesis of humus, these two elements must be present in balanced proportions.
It is important to mix materials with different characteristics (for example green and wet materials with dry and woody materials) just to balance the C / N ratio.
Tips for prepare compost with a correct yield of composting.
AIR: it is necessary to avoid the lack of oxygen in the compound because in this case the organic substance rots instead of turning into good humus. To avoid stagnation, the heap and the caisson must rest directly on the ground, never on a waterproof surface such as concrete or asphalt.
WATER: it is essential that the material to compost maintain a balanced humidity. Without water there is no life. The material must never dry out and therefore should be watered in summer.
HEAT: it is always essential that the temperature is kept constantly high (55-65 ° C) for a time sufficient to complete the entire composting process.
Why Our website recommends you to prepare compost?
The compost guarantees the fertility of the soil, it is a natural fertilizer that can be used for the vegetable garden, for the garden and for potted plants.
It allows to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.
It reduces the amount of waste to be disposed of in landfills, slowing down its exhaustion and reducing the environmental impact.
It makes incinerators more efficient: you will not have to incinerate organic waste with other waste, avoiding bad combustion. THE Organic waste they slow down the combustion because they are rich in water, therefore they cause a great waste of energy.