There soil fertility it depends on physical (structure), chemical (supply of nutritional elements for plants) and biological (activity of useful organisms) factors. The topsoil that you use in your garden, is it fertile enough?
To guarantee health and productivity to ours garden the use of natural fertilizers. The ideal is a medium-textured soil or a soil where sand, clay and stones (with a diameter greater than 2 mm) are simultaneously present in the right proportions. The medium-textured soil is worked better and also allows the water to filter, retaining the amount necessary for the life of our garden. If the topsoil does not have these characteristics, it will be up to us to provide soil fertility with appropriate processing. Let's see some of them:
- the addition of earth of the opposite nature; which consists in adding peat mixed with expanded clay that improves the aeration and porosity of the soil as well as ensuring better drainage. Or adding to soil for the garden appropriate quantities of marl or lime. Marl is a land particularly rich in limestone and therefore in calcium, which has beneficial effects on the structure of the soil as it stimulates the coagulation of clayey particles, improving porosity.
- the careful removal of evident surface residues such as roots, weeds, stones, debris, bricks, waste etc. Subsequently in frequent tillage of the soil with specific tools that facilitate the disintegrating action of atmospheric agents by improving the compactness of the soil.
- organic fertilizations; which consists in satisfying the nutritional needs of crops. The organic substance par excellence, traditionally used in agriculture is manure or manure, obtained from the fermentation and maturation of the litter of traditional farms.
Also essential nutrients for enrich the soil are phosphorus and potassium, which we can find in wood ash. The limestone powder, rich in magnesium, neutralizes the acidity of the soil and promotes the absorption of nutrients by plants. the finely chopped shells of molluscs are an excellent supplier of calcium. The gypsum, calcium sulphate in a very fine powder, lightens the soils that are too compact and heavy.
Useful tips for the garden soil:
If the soil has hosted a construction site for more than three months, it is advisable to plow deep (50-60 cm), followed by a filling of good garden soil, in a layer of 20-30 cm, in which they will expand the roots. Carryover is also useful on land returning from a long period of non-use (uncultivated) or particularly poor.
If the ground has bumps and hollows, it is important to roughly level the ground by passing several times with a cultivator up to 15-20 cm deep in a “tempered” soil condition, ie neither wet nor dry. crush the clods well and administer substances necessary to increase fertility and improve the structure of the soil, with fertilizers and fertilizers.
If the surface of the soil is not even, it is advisable to pass the rake or the leveling net several times, giving a slightly sloping profile towards the outside, to facilitate the disposal of excess water. Then you go with the special 50 kg roller (also available for hire), two to three times if the ground is very soft. If the ground is subject to excessive water stagnation, it is advisable to install an underground drainage system with slotted pipes that collect the water and convey it into the drains.
Determining factor forimprove the garden soil it is mulching, an operation that consists in covering the soil with a layer of 10-12 cm or 3-5 cm thickness, depending on the type of material which can be of organic or inorganic origin. Materials of organic origin are bark, straw, manure, dry leaves, hazelnut shells, cocoa beans, coconut fibers, compost, biodegradable fibers, etc. The materials of inorganic origin are Non Woven Fabric (TNT), copper, gravel, volcanic lapillus, polypropylene, slate flakes.
The function is to prevent the growth of weeds, reduce watering, especially in summer, protect the surface roots of plants from heat in summer and cold in winter, maintain soil moisture, avoid erosion due to both rains than to watering.