It sounds very simple but one of the most frequently asked questions by gardeners is "when to water the plants?". The guidelines of any book would say to water the plants once a week. Unfortunately, those guidelines generalize too much and do not consider that indoor plants vary in the need for water both for the quality and the size of the plant itself. Excess water could damage the plant, just as the lack of water could cause it to dry out. If you cannot generalize about the plant, you can do it for the soil, in fact to understand when to water the plants just look at the potting soil.
The soil of a plant should always be kept moist and the surface should never dry out. If the surface of the soil is dry, you will notice that the soil will tend to detach from the walls of the pot and will take on a dusty appearance. A key indicator that will help you understand when to water your plants is given by the terracotta pot, in fact in this case it will be necessary to observe the color of the pot: if it is darker and almost slimy to the touch, the plant will not need any more water. Conversely, if it is clear and porous to the touch, the plant will need to be watered. If the pot is dark and slimy, before the next one irrigation, wait a few days, especially if it is winter. In cold seasons, when an excess of water is administered, the entire root system could rot because the cold climate and poor lighting typical of the winter season hinder growth and therefore water consumption; not to mention the effect of stagnation dictated by the lack of evaporation, typical of the summer periods.
If you notice spots of rot on the foliage, rotted flowers and green moss, you have really overdid it with the water. At this point, the only way to save the plant is to perform a transplant. The plant must be planted in a new pot with fresh soil that contains at least 25% of sand in order to prevent any stagnation. During the decanting, if you notice a smell of acidity and you see particularly thin and brownish roots, unfortunately the plant will already be rotten and it will be almost impossible to cure it.
Generalizing it can be said that in winter lel plants do not need to be watered much, and, to understand when to water the plants, just look at the soil. Remember that plants with large roots and small leaves need very little water in winter, while plants rich in thin and delicate leaves or with flowering buds, or plants with large leaves, need more water. If you go on vacation and miss home for 5-10 days, water the plants before leaving and place them in a shady area, this will lower their need for water. If on your return, a plant is particularly arid, to treat it promptly, you can immerse the pot for about an hour in a pot of water at room temperature.
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